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In this sense, humanism has dominated Chinese thought from the dawn of its history. Humanism was an outgrowth, not of speculation, but of historical and social change. The conquest of the Shang B.
To consolidate the empire, the Chou challenged human ingenuity and ability, cultivated new trades and talents, and encouraged the development of experts from all levels of society. Prayers for rain were gradually replaced by irrigation. Ti, formerly the tribal Lord, became the God for all. Man and his activities were given greater importance.
The time finally arrived when a slave became a prime minister. Humanism, in gradual ascendance, reached its climax in Confucius.
Having overthrown the Shang, founders of the Chou had to justify their right to rule. Consequently, they developed the doctrine of the Mandate of Heaven, a self-existent moral law whose constant, reliable factor was virtue.
According to this doctrine, man's destiny—both mortal and immortal—depended, not upon the existence of a soul before birth or after death nor upon the whim of a spiritual force, but upon his own good words and good deeds.
The Chou asserted, therefore, that the Shang, though they had received the mandate to rule, had forfeited it because they failed in their duties. The mandate then passed on to the founders of Chou, who deserved it because of their virtue. Obviously, the future of the house of Chou depended upon whether future rulers were virtuous.
The idea that the destiny of man or the future of a dynasty depended upon virtue rather than upon the pleasure of some mysterious, spiritual power marked a radical development from the Shang to the Chou. Significantly, the term te [virtue] is not found in the oracle bones on which Shang ideas and events are recorded, but it is a key word in early Chou documents.
During the Shang, the influence of spiritual beings on man had been almost total, for no important thing could be done without first seeking their approval, but in the Chou B.
As the Book of Rites says, "The people of Yin Shang honor spiritual beings, serve them, and put them ahead of ceremonies. They serve the spiritual beings and respect them, but keep them at a distance.
They remain near to man and loyal to him. In the Shang, he was the supreme anthropomorphic deity who sent blessings or calamities, gave protection in battles, sanctioned undertakings, and passed on the appointment or dismissal of officials. Such belief continued in the early Chou, but was gradually replaced by the concept of Heaven T''ien as the supreme spiritual reality.
But their personal power was supplanted by human virtue and human effort, and man, through his moral deeds, could now control his own destiny. It was in this light that ancestors were regarded in Chou times. During the Shang, great ancestors were either identified with the Lord,3 or considered as mediators through whom requests were made to the Lord.
In the Chou, they were still influential but, as in the case of Heaven, their influence was exerted not through their power but through their moral example and inspiration.
They were to be respected but to be kept from interfering with human activities. Individual and social categories were to be stated in moral terms according to a "Great Norm. Twenty-five of the fifty-eight chapters are believed to be forgeries by Wang SuHuang-fu Mior Mei Tse of the Eastern Chin period, Of the rest, modern scholars accept only the Chou documents as authentic.
The selections presented here are from this group.Start studying Art Exam 3 - Ch. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Elaborate painting on exterior walls. Travelers Among Mountains and Streams () Fan Kuan (one of the 1st great masters of Song landscapes).
The fan is as much a part of Japanese dress as the hat or coat.
and its management is a great point in etiquette. Japanese dress is somewhat like the Chinese, but is more artistic. and a kind of solemn posturing filled the place that has been occupied by dancing among nations farther to the west.
Painting, charioteering and archery were. Daemones, Family of elementals who inhabit fields, forests, mountains, oceans, streams, lakes, valleys, desert, some towns and they are immortal Greek Daena, .
Pollen analysis is then calibrated with radiocarbon dating to create pollen influx. rates figured by the number of grains of each Little architecture or painting survived the Spanish conquest of Water from streams flowing into the valley was dispersed through an elaborate network of stone-lined furrows to serve a large number of.
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All enemies become confused and attack each other for a time. Ker: The goddess of chaos calls on a big 'ol angry shackled demon to fight for the characters.