Abstract Involvement in warfare can have dramatic consequences for the mental health and well-being of military personnel. During the 20th century, US military psychiatrists tried to deal with these consequences while contributing to the military goal of preserving manpower and reducing the debilitating impact of psychiatric syndromes by implementing screening programs to detect factors that predispose individuals to mental disorders, providing early intervention strategies for acute war-related syndromes, and treating long-term psychiatric disability after deployment. The success of screening has proven disappointing, the effects of treatment near the front lines are unclear, and the results of treatment for chronic postwar syndromes are mixed.
On the battlefield, gruesome modern weaponry wrecked an entire generation of young men. The United States entered the conflict in and was never again the same.
The war simultaneously stoked national pride and fueled disenchantments that burst Progressive Era hopes for the modern world.
And it laid the groundwork for a global depression, a second world war, and an entire history of national, religious, and cultural conflict around the globe.
Prelude to War As the German empire rose in power and influence at the end of the nineteenth century, skilled diplomats maneuvered this disruption of traditional powers and influences into several decades of European peace.
In Germany, however, a new ambitious monarch would overshadow years of tactful diplomacy. Wilhelm II rose to the German throne in He admired the British Empire of his grandmother, Queen Victoria, and envied the Royal Navy of Great Britain so much that he attempted to build a rival German navy and plant colonies around the globe.
InGerman posturing worried the leaders of Russia and France and prompted a defensive alliance to counter the existing triple threat between Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy. The other great threat to European peace was the Ottoman Empire, in Turkey.
While the leaders of the Austrian-Hungarian Empire showed little interest in colonies elsewhere, Turkish lands on its southern border appealed to their strategic goals.
However, Austrian-Hungarian expansion in Europe worried Tsar Nicholas II, who saw Russia as both the historic guarantor of the Slavic nations in the Balkans and the competitor for territories governed by the Ottoman Empire.
Bythe Austrian-Hungarian Empire had control of Bosnia and Herzegovina and viewed Slavic Serbia, a nation protected by Russia, as its next challenge.
On June 28,after Serbian Gavrilo Princip assassinated the Austrian-Hungarian heirs to the throne, Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife, Grand Duchess Sophie, vengeful nationalist leaders believed the time had arrived to eliminate the rebellious ethnic Serbian threat.
The federal government did not participate in international diplomatic alliances but nevertheless championed and assisted with the expansion of the transatlantic economy.
American businesses and consumers benefited from the trade generated as the result of the extended period of European peace.
The federal government possessed limited diplomatic tools with which to engage in international struggles for world power.
The strain that NASA felt due to the constant demands and pressure from the politicians to deliver a commercially viable shuttle, and the military demand for one that could be of use in time of war, put NASA in a position where, to survive, it had to compromise its safety standards. How the Great War Shaped the World. In April , modern chemical warfare was born on the battlefields of Belgium, and soon became a tolerated (although never legalized) form of weaponry used. The Gulf war even surpassed the Six-Day War as the nadir of pan-Arabism in the post-World War II era. The Gulf war had its origins in an Arab-Arab conflict which Saddam Hussein, the President of Iraq, tried, with only partial success, to turn into an Arab-Israeli conflict and which ended up as a conflict between the Western powers and Iraq.
But in the s, as Americans embarked upon empire, Congress authorized the construction of a modern navy. The army nevertheless remained small and underfunded compared to the armies of many industrializing nations. After the turn of the century, the army and navy faced a great deal of organizational uncertainty.
New technologies—airplanes, motor vehicles, submarines, modern artillery—stressed the capability of army and navy personnel to effectively procure and use them. The Davis Act of and the National Defense Act of inaugurated the rise of the modern versions of the National Guard and military reserves.
A system of state-administered units available for local emergencies that received conditional federal funding for training could be activated for use in international wars. The National Guard program encompassed individual units separated by state borders. The program supplied summer training for college students as a reserve officer corps.
Federal and state governments now had a long-term strategic reserve of trained soldiers and sailors. Revolution and chaos threatened American business interests in Mexico.From Neutrality to War: The United States and Europe, – In the years after World War I Americans quickly reached the conclusion that their country's participation in that war had been a disastrous mistake, one which should never be repeated again.
World War I: World War I, international conflict that in –18 embroiled most of the nations of Europe along with Russia, the U.S., the Middle East, and other regions.
It led to the fall of four great imperial dynasties and, in its destabilization of European society, laid the groundwork for World War II. World War II JUDSON KNIGHT The Second World War was history's largest and most significant armed conflict.
It served as the breeding ground for the modern structure of security and intelligence, and for the postwar balance of power that formed the framework for the Cold kaja-net.coms, materiel, and actual combat, though vital to the Allies' victory over the Axis, did not alone win the war.
The Best War Poems Everyone Should Read.
Nov 2. Posted by interestingliterature. 10 classic war poems from Wilfred Owen, Siegfried Sassoon, and others To make it easier to select just ten great war poems, we’ve limited ourselves to the First World War (though several were written many decades later), but this is not to deny that there.
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The views expressed are those of the authors, and do not reflect the official position of the United States Military Academy, Department of the Army, or Department of Defense.