Colligative properties and osmotic pressure

Solution Chemistry Photo by: Important industrial processes often utilize solution chemistry. Air, tap water, tincture of iodine, beverages, and household ammonia are common examples of solutions. A solution is a homogenous mixture of substances with variable composition.

Colligative properties and osmotic pressure

Electrostatics Electric field, electric field due to a point charge, electric field lines; electric dipole, electric field due to a dipole; torque on a dipole in a uniform electric field. Conductors and insulators, free charges and bound charges inside a conductor.

Carbon resistors, colour code for carbon resistors; series and parallel combinations of resistors; temperature dependence of resistance. Internal resistance of a cell, potential difference and emf of a cell, combination Colligative properties and osmotic pressure cells in series and in parallel.

Wheatstone bridge, Meter Bridge.

Colligative properties and osmotic pressure

Potentiometer-principle and applications to measure potential difference, and for comparing emf of two cells; measurement of internal resistance of a cell. Biot-Savart law and its application to current carrying circular loop.

Force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields. Force on a current-carrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field. Force between two parallel current-carrying conductors-definition of ampere.

Torque experienced by a current loop in a magnetic field; moving coil galvanometer-its current sensitivity and conversion to ammeter and voltmeter. Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment.

Magnetic dipole moment of a revolving electron. Magnetic field intensity due to a magnetic dipole bar magnet along its axis and perpendicular to its axis.

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Para- dia-and Ferro-magnetic substances, with examples. Electromagnetic and factors affecting their strengths. Self and mutual inductance.

AC generator and transformer. Need for displacement current. Electromagnetic waves and their characteristics qualitative ideas only. Transverse nature of electromagnetic waves. Electromagnetic spectrum radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, x-rays, gamma rays including elementary facts about their uses.

Optics Reflection of light, spherical mirrors, mirror formula. Refraction and dispersion of light through a prism. Scattering of light- blue colour of the sky and reddish appearance of the sun at sunrise and sunset.

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Microscopes and astronomical telescopes reflecting and refracting and their magnifying powers. Diffraction due to a single slit, width of central maximum. Resolving power of microscopes and astronomical telescopes. Matter waves- wave nature of particles, de Broglie relation.

Composition and size of nucleus, atomic masses, isotopes, isobars; isotones. Mass-energy relation, mass defect; binding energy per nucleon and its variation with mass number, nuclear fission and fusion.

Electronic Devices Energy bands in solids qualitative ideas onlyconductors, insulators and semiconductors; semiconductor diode- I-V characteristics in forward and reverse bias, diode as a rectifier; I-V characteristics of LED, photodiode, solar cell, and Zener diode; Zener diode as a voltage regulator.

Junction transistor, transistor action, characteristics of a transistor; transistor as an amplifier common emitter configuration and oscillator. Transistor as a switch. Chemical Kinetics Rate of a reaction average and instantaneousfactors affecting rates of reaction; concentration, temperature, catalyst; order and molecularity of a reaction; rate law and specific rate constant, integrated rate equations and half-life only for zero and first order reactions ; concept of collision theory elementary idea, no mathematical treatment.

Activation energy, Arrhenious equation. Surface Chemistry Adsorption-physisorption and chemisorption; factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids, catalysis homogeneous and heterogeneous, activity and selectivity: General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements Principles and methods of extraction- concentration, oxidation, reduction electrolytic method and refining; occurrence and principles of extraction of aluminium, copper, zinc and iron.

You can download here: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, oxidation states, trends in physical and chemical properties; preparation and properties of ammonia and nitric acid, oxides of nitrogen structure only ; Phosphorous- allotropic forms; compounds of phosphorous:Chemical Potential.

The chemical potential of a substance i is the partial molar derivative of the free energy G, the enthalpy H, the Helmholtz energy A, or the internal energy U of substance i.

Matter flows spontaneously from a region of high chemical potential to a region of low chemical potential just like electric current flows from a region of high electric potential to a region of low.

In chemistry, colligative properties are properties of solutions that depend on the ratio of the number of solute particles to the number of solvent molecules in a solution, and not on the nature of the chemical species present.

The number ratio can be related to the various units for concentration of solutions. The assumption that solution properties are independent of nature of solute. NEET Syllabus contains Physical world and measurement, Laws of Motion, Kinematics, Work, Energy and Power, Motion of System of Particles and Rigid Body, Gravitation, Properties of Bulk Matter, Thermodynamics, Behaviour of Perfect Gas and Kinetic Theory, Oscillations and Waves.

Chemical Potential. The chemical potential of a substance i is the partial molar derivative of the free energy G, the enthalpy H, the Helmholtz energy A, or the internal energy U of substance i. Matter flows spontaneously from a region of high chemical potential to a region of low chemical potential just like electric current flows from a region of high electric potential to a region of low. In chemistry, colligative properties are properties of solutions that depend on the ratio of the number of solute particles to the number of solvent molecules in a solution, and not on the nature of the chemical species present. The number ratio can be related to the various units for concentration of solutions. The assumption that solution properties are independent of nature of solute. In chemistry, colligative properties are properties of solutions that depend on the ratio of the number of solute particles to the number of solvent molecules in a solution, and not on the nature of the chemical species present. The number ratio can be related to the various units for concentration of solutions. The assumption that solution properties are independent of nature of solute.

NEET Syllabus PDF Download Free. WORKSHEET:SOLUTIONS AND COLLIGATIVE PROPERTIES SET A: 1. Find the molarity of all ions in a solution that contains moles of aluminum chloride in ml.

" there would seem to be almost no limit to what people can and will misunderstand when they are not doing their utmost to get at a writer's meaning.". Honors Chemistry is designed for students who have demonstrated strong ability in previous science courses.

In this fast-paced, demanding course, the main topics--which include atomic theory, nuclear chemistry, periodicity, chemical reactions, stoichiometry, gases, solutions, reaction kinetics, equilibrium, acid-base theory, oxidation-reduction, and organic chemistry--are studied at an.

Honors Chemistry