How to cite this article: Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 3:
Received on ; Accepted on ; Published on Permissions: Please contact mpub-help umich. For more information, read Michigan Publishing's access and usage policy. This has led to a search for therapeutic alternatives, particularly among medicinal plants and compounds isolated from them used for their empirically antifungal properties.
In these natural sources, a series of molecules with antifungal activity against different strains of fungus have been found, which are of great importance to humans and plants. In this article, we review the main sources of molecules with antimycotic activity obtained from the natural environment.
Fungus, antifungals, medicinal plants Contents Introduction 1. Atta-ur-Rahman ARKIVOC vii Introduction In the past few decades, a worldwide increase in the incidence of fungal infections has been observed as well as a rise in the resistance of some species of fungus to different fungicidals used in medicinal practice.
The last two decades have witnessed a dramatic rise in the incidence of life threatening systemic fungal infections. The challenge has been to develop effective strategies for the treatment of candidiasis and other fungal diseases, considering the increase in opportunistic fungal infections in human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients and in others who are immunocompromised due to cancer chemotherapy and the indiscriminate use of antibiotics.
The majority of clinically used antifungals have various drawbacks in terms of toxicity, efficacy and cost, and their frequent use has led to the emergence of resistant strains. Additionally, in recent years public pressure to reduce the use of synthetic fungicides in agriculture has increased.
Concerns have been raised about both the environmental impact and the potential health risk related to the use of these compounds. Hence, there is a great demand for novel antifungals belonging to a wide range of structural classes, selectively acting on new targets with fewer side effects.
One approach might be the testing of plants traditionally used for their antifungal activities as potential sources for drug development. Medicinal plants are not only important to the millions of people for whom traditional medicine is the only opportunity for health care and to those who use plants for various purposes in their daily lives, but also as a source of new pharmaceuticals.
Natural products, either as pure compounds or as standardised plant extracts, provide unlimited opportunities for new drug leads because of the matchedless availability of chemical diversity. This review aims to examine the recent efforts to date towards discovering novel antifungal drugs of natural origin.
The information has been organised into easily accessible and comparable sections, with reference to the crude extracts or isolated constituents studied. Crude extracts A review of the literature on the evaluation of medicinal plant extracts shows that many studies into their antifungal activities have been carried out in recent years.
Various research group have initiated antifungal screening programmes for plants used all over the world as anti-infectious agents in traditional medicine.
Nineteen plant species from fourteen families used in traditional North American Indian medicine were tested for their fungicidal Cladosporium cucumerinum and Candida albicans activity. The plants were evaluated on the growth of yeasts and moulds: Candida albicans, Candida krusei, Candida rugosa, Cryptococcus neoformans, Cryptococcus laurentis, Cryptococcus albidus, Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton tonsurans, Epidermophyton flocosum and Sporotrix schenckii.
The extracts analysed showed good antifungal activity against more than one organism. Another screening for antifungal agents was done on medicinal and fruit bearing plants used against skin diseases by the Brazilian population.
Candida albicans, Trichophyton rubrum and Cryptococcus neoformans. Methanol extracts from eleven traditionally-used Argentine medicinal plants were assayed in vitro for antifungal activity against yeasts, hialohypomycetes as well as dermatophytes with the microbroth dilution method.
Asteraceae and Terminalia triflora Griseb. As part of a European screening aimed at the selection of novel antimycotic compounds of vegetable origin, leaf extracts of Camelia sinensis L.
TheaceaeCupressus sempervivens L. Cupressaceae and Pistacia lentiscus L. Anacardiaceaeand the seed extract of Glycine soja Sieb. Papilonaceae were tested against yeast and yeast-like species implicated in human mycoses.
In recent years, there has also been a large number of antifungal screening programmes of medicinal plants used in the traditional medicine of Eastern Europe and Africa.Medicinal uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre: A review.
showed good activity againts a broad spectrum of bacteria strain. In contradictory, the bark and leaf extract with low IC 50 values of 9– Irmanida Batubara of Bogor Agricultural University, Bogor (IPB) with expertise in: Pharmacology, Organic Chemistry and Phytochemistry.
bark) and Acacia seyal var. seyal (wood) demonstrated.
Four phenolic acid derivatives were isolated from an ethyl acetate extract of the root bark of Lycium chinense Miller (Solanaceae) All had antifungal effect and impeded the dimorphic transition of the pathogen Candida albicans.
NATIONAL AGRICULTURAL LIBRARY ARCHIVED FILE Archived files are provided for reference purposes only. This file was current when produced, but is . The 95% ethanol extract of the bark of Swartzia polyphylla D.C. (Fabaceae) possesses important antimycobacterial and antifungal activities in vitro Bioassay-guided studies performed on the crude extract afforded the flavonoids biochanin A and dihydrobiochanin A as antifungal constituents.
In contradictory, the bark and leaf extract with low IC 50 values of 9–43 μg dry extract/ml has been shown to be potential as anti-malaria by possessing antiplasmodial activity against Plasmodium falciparum (Simonsen et al., ).