For the purpose of this assignment I intend to discuss in great detail social policy and how it is applied in practice, using examples from mainly voluntary sectors.
Provision and development can change due to social, economic and political factors Spicker,p. State provision of welfare has a long history, in Britain for instance dating back to the Elizabethan Poor Laws and earlier.
Welfare states started to develop when surveys of poverty by people such as Charles Booth showed the inadequacy of welfare provisions that could not deal with poverty particularly with increasing urbanisation and industrialisation Thane,p.
The worldwide depression from would lead countries to consider further welfare developments. There are various key theories that seek to explain the processes involved in welfare state Essays social policy britain that will be explained below.
The theories have evolved or being devised to explain the differences and similarities in welfare state development in different countries at the same time or in a single country over a period of time.
After the main theories have been discussed the one or ones that are most applicable for evaluating contemporary changes will be outlined. There are different ways of looking at the development of the welfare state and deciding how far it should extend, demands for changes can result from improved technology, shifting social or economic factors and demographic trends such as lower birth rates and people living longer.
Four key theories of welfare state development are based around liberalism, Marxism, Neo-liberalism and post structuralism and have all at some point been reflected in or used in the development of welfare states.
Developments in welfare states can also be reactive or proactive depending on the ideological aims and visions of governments or their ability to make social policy Spicker,p.
Liberalism tended to stress the role of the individual in providing for their own needs; the state should only intervene to help those that were incapable of finding work.
In Britain the liberals originally achieved their aims for welfare state development with the Poor Law Act that finally replaced the long lasting but no longer effective act of Liberalism stressed in its original form that all the state needs to do is give individuals the freedom to make their own choices, only helping the really destitute.
For them government only needs to uphold laws and property rights. Find more free essays like this one We have a large reference library of essays that you can use as research materials to help with your own writing check out our free social policy essays. Share this resource with your friends We hope you found this information in this free pdf useful.
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Keep up to date with the latest essay writing hints, tips and free research materials to help you with your assignments - simply subscribe to our RSS feed or join us on Facebook now! However some liberals recognised the shortcomings of laissez-faire economics particularly during recessions and slumps.
They also noted the failings of the Poor Law to tackle poverty even during periods of improving prosperity. There emerged new and radical liberalism that called for increased welfare provision and the emergence of limited welfare states.
The British Liberal governments of epitomized that approach by introducing state old age pensions and labour exchanges for the unemployed Comfort,p. In contrast Germany had already had a well-developed welfare state provision by Curiously Bismarck who wanted a healthy well-educated population drew up this system M Donald Hancock et al,p.
Beveridge had plenty of experience in welfare policy having being in charge of the labour exchanges and lecturing on economics at Oxford University and the London School of Economics. Marxism was developed by Karl Marx in conjunction with Fredrich Engels and led to a second keynote theory of developing the welfare state.
Of course Marx and Engels were not concerned with such issues as they wished to promote communism and work towards the working classes taking over economic and political power from the capitalist classes. A Marxist state would develop a welfare state to promote progress, communism and above all protect the workers and eliminate poverty.
The Marxist movement was not unified about how it would develop the welfare state or indeed gain power. Some Marxists such as the German Social Democrats preferred to use parliamentary democracy to achieve power and develop a welfare state. The seminal Erfurt Programme of called for welfare provisions such as eight- hour working days, free healthcare, free education, minimum wages and equality for women.
More radical Marxists such as Lenin and Trotsky advocated armed revolutions and were able to seize power himself. The Soviet Union itself developed a welfare state with free medical and education services and pensions with unemployment officially non-existent J.
In Imperial Germany, Bismarck set up the welfare state to undermine the socialists thus taming these wild beast of the political forest Hobsbawm,p.
The Marxist-Leninist regimes of the Soviet Union and its Central and Eastern European satellites may have developed welfare states but they failed to produce the economic prosperity of the West and the many failures of their planned economies contributed to the fall of these regimes.
On the other hand their population were all more economically equal, they were poor but had free welfare provision and no political rights. The third main keynote theory for welfare state development is Neo-Liberalism most closely associated with the governments of Margaret Thatcher and Ronald Reagan.
In Britain and other parts of Western Europe the combination of Keynesian economics and all embracing welfare provision that had helped to achieve postwar prosperity faltered in the late s and the s. Neo-Liberals believed that the combination of Keynesian economics and the welfare state were contributing to economic and political stagnation and were no longer viable.
Following policies that became known as Thatcherism nationalised industries were privatised, subsidies to ailing private companies were stopped, and council houses were sold off.
These policies increased unemployment but eventually lowered inflation. Margaret Thatcher also limited trade union power and defeated the miners during the bitter strike of She brushed aside opposition to her policies as people accept there is no alternative Comfort,p.Social Policy Essays - Modern welfare state development is generally considered to lead to social security or benefits payments, social housing provision, health provision, social work and.
Database of FREE Social Policy essays - We have thousands of free essays across a wide range of subject areas. Sample Social Policy essays! paper will explain and discuss the concept of multiculturalism and the contested nature of the term as it relates to social policy and discourses.
Published: Tue, 14 Aug Introduction to social policy and Inequalities in Britain. critically assess the impact of historical influence, social-political agendas and economic climate on the main features of contemporary social policy.
Social policy aims to improve human welfare and to meet human needs for education, health, housing and social security.
The Malcolm Wiener Center for Social Policy at Harvard University describes it as "public policy and practice in the areas of health care, human services, criminal justice, inequality, education, and labor.
Database of FREE Social Policy essays - We have thousands of free essays across a wide range of subject areas. Sample Social Policy essays! Of all policies in post-war Britain, the Housing Policy Review was the best moment of all changes in housing provision. By the early s, however, satisfaction disappeared and a growing housing crisis became a concern once again.