I would also like to thank the Northey Street City Farm gardeners for their participation in the interview process. My thanks are also extended to my parents Alberto and Licia Gelsi for their moral support, to Mr Kieran Tranter, Ms Lyndall Sleep and Ms Philippa Hawke for their advice and lengthy discussions, and to Mr Robert Righton without whose computer support this thesis would have not been possible.
Works Cited Introduction Wide consensus exists that the international drug trade poses significant health and national security risks for the nations of the Americas. Throughout the s, the "war on drugs" which was promoted by the Reagan and Bush administrations in Latin America focused on stopping this scourage of drugs at the source.
Latin American governments were strongly pressured by the United States to intensify their drug control efforts, producing a "narcoticization" of bilateral diplomatic relations in several cases.
After years of pursuing this strategy, its effects are apparent. The broad failure of U. This paper attempts to examine where the United States has been with regard to its Latin American drug control policy and realistically define the illicit drug phenomenon in the Americas.
It also examines the militarization of drug control efforts by the United States and the effects these programs have had on Latin American countries during the past decade.
Finally, the paper explores how the "drug war" has impacted other U. The sharp increase in illicit drug use in the United States during the decade prompted the government to adopt a policy that has remained relatively consistent for over twenty years.
Starting with Operation Intercept, a rigorous inspection program along the U.
Policymakers assume that the best way to reduce domestic illicit drug consumption is to reduce the supply of drugs entering the United States from international locations. If drug supply can be "contained" and eliminated, the model holds that U. The United States has experienced some success with this strategy that reinforced policymaker faith in the containment model.
A change in opium production methods in Turkey, from illicit opium gum to "poppy straw concentrate", made illicit production of opium poppy and heroin more controllable.
This technological change and subsequent enforcement actions by the Turkish and U. Each of these successes were short term, but none-the-less convinced U. The traditional emphasis of the United States in drug control was summarized well by former President George Bush.
He stated "The logic is simple His statement demonstrates that the United States views the drug problem as fundamentally beginning with the drug producing nations.
It also reveals that the policy "costs" of such programs are measured relative to the United States, and unfortunately have not historically included the high costs borne by Latin American countries for these efforts.
The supply side emphasis of U. Approximately seventy percent of drug control funds have historically been targeted for the supply side, which includes interdiction, eradication, lab destruction and law enforcement efforts to disrupt trafficker organizations and distribution.
The remaining thirty percent has been directed at the demand side of the illicit drug equation, supporting treatment programs for addicts and drug abuse prevention programs. During the s, some U.
Expectations for the Andean eradication campaign, to be intensified inwere that "the end result, after five years, would be the complete elimination of the coca problem in Latin America" Van Wert, Such unrealistic expectations were a product of the containment model of drug control, which failed to accurately assess the fundamental nature of the international drug trade.
Unrealistic goals continue to be set for U. As an example, the April U. S International Narcotics Control Strategy Report stated that in Bolivia, the "strategic goal of the counternarcotics program is to reduce, and eventually eliminate, Bolivian production of illicit coca and refined cocaine products and the demand for narcotics" INCSR While this goal may sound appealing to U.
To maximize its leverage with Latin American governments, the United States has strongly favored bilateral over multilateral agreements. Office of International Narcotics Matters, only 4. By keeping its drug control programs on a bilateral level, the United States has theoretically been able to exert pressure more directly on Latin American countries than it would be able to through multilateral groups.
Another factor limiting the scope and effectiveness of multilateral drug control programs has been the unwillingness of many nations to become involved in controversial law enforcement activities. Since drug traffickers are not restricted by national borders, international law enforcement efforts against these criminals would encounter numerous political obstacles, including the issue of national sovereignty.New Era Hi-tech Buses (Bus Rapid Transit) for use both on and off the public highway which have been designed to look similar to modern trams and streetcars.
EMO is the 9th International Conference on Evolutionary Multi- Criterion Optimization, aiming to continue the success of previous EMO conferences. The theory of constraints (TOC) is a management paradigm that views any manageable system as being limited in achieving more of its goals by a very small number of kaja-net.com is always at least one constraint, and TOC uses a focusing process to identify the constraint and restructure the rest of the organization around it.
TOC adopts the common idiom "a chain is no stronger than its. by Emanuele John Gelsi, B.A. (JCU), kaja-net.com (JCU) [email protected] March A thesis is submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Social Planning and Development in the Department of Sociology and Anthropology at The University of Queensland.
by Emanuele John Gelsi, B.A. (JCU), kaja-net.com (JCU) [email protected] March A thesis is submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Social Planning and Development in the Department of Sociology and Anthropology at The University of Queensland.
This is the first book presenting a broad overview of parallelism in constraint-based reasoning formalisms. In recent years, an increasing number of contributions have been made on scaling constraint reasoning thanks to parallel architectures.