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Beginnings[ edit ] The Soviet newspaper industry began in the underground movements that created Pravdameaning 'truth', which on 5 May was published as a political newspaper. Pravda did not start as a political publication, but instead was a journal on social life. Yet in Vladimir Lenin would decide that the party needed a voice in the news industry and that Pravda could convey the party wishes.
Distribution[ edit ] The government subsidization allowed the newspapers to be priced low and distributed widely. Newspapers were distributed by government administrations, and had three streams of revenue. One stream were subscriptions that people would pay to read.
A second was advertisements, with some papers having more than others, an example being that evening newspapers in the major cities, which were popular advertisement vehicles because they had the widest audience base. Lastly, newspapers received very substantial subsidies from their parent organization.
Subsequently, the Soviet system had no capital costs, as subsidies would cover them. Thus if the Central Committee of the Communist Party decided to publish a paper it would build the plant, equip it, and then turn it over to the Newspaper company.
Yet, there were attempts to achieve economies of scale, and major publications would produce smaller more class-oriented papers because the parent government administration publishing the paper would cover the capital investments. This capital investment cost coverage, which was not limited How do e payments differ from traditional a single production plant, allowed papers such as Pravda, to be distributed across the entire Soviet Union in one morning, a feat which Western papers such as the New York Times would not achieve for twenty-five or more years.
On the down side, the Soviets had set up a system in which everyone would receive their news at relatively the same time. Most of these stories came from the Telegraphic Agency of the Soviet Union, making it both a news agency and the main distributor of government information.
A side effect of the Telegraphic agency being the most important source was that many stories could not be covered until the agency itself had covered it. Also, this distribution of news by the government meant that not everyone could read the same publications.
Governmental clearances thus dictated who could read what. Staff[ edit ] The time period from the New Economic Policy of to to the "Great Break" of to comprises the period of large soviet press transformations.
In the s, during the New Economic Policy period, the Soviet Press was concerned with the education of the poorer classes. To achieve that, a broadly educated newspaper staff would be necessary. Yet, at the beginning of the s, the Soviet Newspapers were not only under staffed, the journalists were themselves undereducated and they lacked any journalistic skill.
Because of this, the Press Corps strived to raise the standards of the press, while at the same time maintaining strong party support from the journalists. During this time the Soviet Press's main objective was to disseminate party ideology to the lower classes, but it also intended to act as the watchdog to protect the people from rising corruption, and as the emissary from the people to the party regime.
This resulted in an apparent conflict of purpose. Soviet journalists prided themselves in their professionalism at this time, all while accepting the Bolshevik Party as the ruling authority.
However, the Press Corps distrusted anyone who was a white-collar employee, or a member of the academia, believing that an individual's class would predetermine their attitude towards the Bolshevik Party the assumption being that white-collar professionals and academics looked unfavorably on the ruling Bolsheviks.
Due to this assumption, the Press Corps had a preference for training members of the proletariat, or more specifically the poor or middle class peasants as journalists. Thus, a conflict arose between the desire to hire people the press corps trusted, and finding skilled journalists who could succeed in the goal of educating and equalizing the masses.
However, the denial that this conflict existed led to the Soviet Newspapers to being staffed by persons with an uncomfortable combination of ideologies. The conflict ended when a large movement favoring party ideology and background emerged, culminating inwhen the State Institute of Journalism determined they would train only those with trusted ideological backgrounds to be journalists for the Soviet Newspapers.
The supply of journalist students that fit the proper ideological background could not meet the demand for professional and competent journalists for the prestigious spots, which explains the large number of party switchers.
The State Institute of Journalism broke its own ideological rules in order to meet its professional standards and goals by accepting better educated but less ideologically centered students. The interesting and conflicted mix that occurred from the government's need for party propaganda to be conveyed by individuals with journalistic skill was the true beginning of the professional Soviet News Media.
Throughout the s the State Institute of Journalism would continue to produce a standardized curriculum to meet their goals of producing competent and professional journalists, however, this led to a curriculum in a constant state of flux.
Additionally, a clear class distinction developed between editors and journalists that would continue throughout the s and even through the Shakhty trial, the beginning of "charges against class enemies.
All of this culminated in the s when the State Institute of Journalism ended its drive for professional journalism and standards purged the old faculty at the Institute of Journalism, and government officials revised the entire curriculum to meet propaganda goals.
Late Soviet Union[ edit ] This article does not cite any sources. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. October Circulation[ edit ] In the Soviet Union published more than 8, daily newspapers in approximately sixty languages, with a combined circulation of about million.
Every all-union newspaper was circulated in its Russian language version.The Dai ku Myo is known as the Master Symbol. This is the function or energy that the Reiki master activates to do the Attunements that make the Reiki energies permanently accessible to .
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