Lexical Differences of Territorial Variants Speaking about the lexical distinctions between the territorial variants of the English language it is necessary to point out that from the point of view of their modern currency in different parts of the English-speaking world all lexical units may be divided into general English, those common to all the variants and locally-marked, those specific to present-day usage in one of the variants and not found in the others i.
But the matter is not as simple as that. These pairs present quite different cases. It is only in some rare cases like tin-opener—can-opener or fishmonger—fish-dealer that the members of such pairs are semantically equivalent.
In pairs like government—administration, leader—editorial only one lexical semantic variant of one of the members is locally-marked. Thus in the first pair the lexical semantic variant of administration—'the executive officials of a government' is an Americanism, in the second pair the word leader in the meaning of 'leading article in a newspaper' is a Briticism.
In some cases a notion may have two synonymous designations used on both sides of the Atlantic ocean, but one of them is more frequent in Britain, the other—in the USA. Thus in the pairs post—mail, timetable—schedule, notice—bulletin the first word is more frequent in Britain, the second—in America.
So the difference here lies only in word-frequency. Most locally-marked lexical units belong to partial Briticisms, Americanisms, etc. Within the semantic structure of such words one may often find meanings belonging to general English, Americanisms and Briticisms, e.
Very often the meanings that belong to general English are common and neutral, central, direct, while the Americanisms are colloquial, marginal and figurative, e.
There are also some full Briticisms, Americanisms. For example, the words fortnight, pillar-box are full Briticisms, campus, mailboy are full Americanisms, outback, backblocks are full Australianisms.
These may be subdivided into lexical units denoting some realia that have no counterparts elsewhere such as the Americanism junior high school and those denoting phenomena observable in other English-speaking countries but expressed there in a different way e.
The number of lexical units denoting some realia having no counterparts in the other English-speaking countries is considerable in each variant. To these we may refer, for example, lexical units pertaining to such spheres of life as flora and fauna e. AuE kangaroo, kaola, dingo, gum-treenames of schools of learning e.
But it is not the lexical units of this kind that can be considered distinguishing features of this or that variant. As the lexical units are the only means of expressing the notions in question in the English language some of them have become common property of the entire English-speaking community as, e.
The numerous locally-marked slangisms, professionalisms and dialectisms cannot be considered distinguishing features either, since they do not belong to the literary language.
Less obvious, yet not less important, are the regional differences of another kind, the so-called derivational variants of words, having the same root and identical in lexical meaning though differing in derivational affixes e.
Sometimes the derivational variation embraces several words of the same word-cluster. Compare, for example, the derivatives of race division of mankind in British and American English: For example, the British and Australian variants have different sets of words denoting inland areas: Accordingly, the semantic structure of the word bush and its position in the two variants are altogether different: Lexical peculiarities in different parts of the English-speaking world are not only those in vocabulary, to be disposed of in an alphabetical list, they also concern the very fashion of using words.
Some patterns of the verb are typical only of one variant e. There are also some features of dissimilarity in the word's lexical valency, e. As to word-formation in different variants, the word-building means employed are the same and most of them are equally productive.Variants of the English.
Language Lecture 15 1. The Main Variants of the English Language Every language allows different kinds of variations: geographical or territorial. Territorial varieties of English pronunciation. Characteristics of the English language in different parts of the English-speaking world.
Lexical differences of territorial variants. Some points of history of the territorial variants and lexical interchange between them. Local dialects in the USA. We will write a custom essay sample on Variants and Dialects of the English and Armenian Languages specifically for you they cannot be regarded as different languages.
Lexical Differences of Territorial Variants. When speaking about the territorial differences of the English language philologists and lexicographers usually note the fact. В§ 2.
Lexical Differences of Territorial Variants: Speaking about the lexical distinctions between the territorial variants of the English language it is necessary to point out that from the point of view of their modern currency in different parts of the English-speaking world all lexical units may.
Regional varieties of the English language. Lexical differences. Modern linguistics distinguishes territorial variants of a national language and local dialects.
Variants of a language are regional varieties of a standard literary language characterised by some minor peculiarities in the sound system, vocabulary and grammar and by their own.
Characteristics of the English language in different parts of the English-speaking world. Lexical differences of territorial variants. Some points of history of the territorial variants and lexical interchange between them.
Local dialects in the USA.