Much research and debate revolves around the problem of juvenile delinquency in the US. The research is mainly focused on the causes of juvenile delinquency and which strategies have successfully diminished crime rates among the youth population. Though the causes are debated and controversial as well, much of the debate revolves around the punishment and rehabilitation of juveniles in a youth detention center or elsewhere.
These sources may yield different crime rates and trends. Each source has advantages and drawbacks, and each alone gives an incomplete picture of crime. In this section, we discuss these sources of data and their strengths and weaknesses.
Arrest Data A common way of measuring crime is to use the Uniform Crime Reports UCRwhich are compiled from data on crimes known to the police and on arrests that are reported annually to the Federal Bureau of Investigation FBI by police agencies around the country.
Data have been collected by the FBI sinceallowing the study of crime and arrest trends over time. The UCR provide crime counts for the United States as a whole, as well as for regions, states, counties, cities, and towns. In addition, the UCR provide data on, among other things, crimes known to the police, crimes cleared by arrest, and characteristics of persons arrested.
However, UCR reporting is voluntary, and the total number of reporting police agencies varies from year to year. The accuracy and completeness of the data are affected by the voluntary nature of UCR reporting Maltz, In some years, data from one or more entire states have been unavailable.
For example, from tono usable data were obtained from either Florida or Kentucky Federal Bureau of Investigation, Coverage within states also varies from year to year.
The FBI imputes information when none has been reported. Because many of the tables in the published UCR, including the breakdown by age, are based on whichever agencies report in a given year and not on a nationally representative sample, caution must be used in making generalizations to all young people in the United States based on UCR data.
This is particularly true with regard to analyses regarding race, because the racial makeup of the areas covered by reporting agencies may not reflect the racial makeup of the country.
Juvenile Crime, Juvenile Justice. The National Academies Press. The crime index includes the violent offenses of murder and nonnegligent homicide, forcible rape, robbery, aggravated assault, and the property offenses of burglary, larceny theft, motor vehicle theft, and arson.
There are drawbacks to using arrest data as a measure of crime. Arrest statistics do not reflect the number of different people arrested each year, because an unknown number of people may be arrested more than once in a year.
For some crimes, no arrests are made. For others, there may be multiple arrests.
Furthermore, not everyone who is arrested has committed the crime for which he or she was arrested. Arrests also depend on a number of factors other than overall crime levels, including policies of particular police agencies, the cooperation of victims, the skill of the perpetrator, and the age, sex, race, and social class of the suspect Cook and Laub, ; McCord, c.
Nor should arrest statistics be confused with the number of crimes committed, because in some cases, the arrest of one person may account for a series of crimes, and in others several people may be arrested for one crime.
This is particularly true for young people, who are more likely than adults to commit crimes in a group McCord, ; Reiss, ; Reiss and Farrington, ; Zimring, Snyder contends that this tendency to offend in groups makes arrest statistics an inappropriate measure of the relative proportion of crime attributed to young people.
They found that the number of crimes accounted for by juveniles would be reduced by approximately 40 percent with an adjustment for co-offending. Rather, arrest statistics measure the flow of young people into the juvenile justice system or the criminal justice system.
For this reason, the number of crimes known to police is often a preferred measure of crime Cook and Laub, The UCR provide information on all crimes known to reporting police agencies, whether or not an arrest has been made.
There is no information on age of the perpetrator, however, in the data on crimes known to police; thus even if they are a more accurate crime measure, the number of crimes known to police cannot be used to analyze juvenile crime. Arrest clearance statistics, which measure the proportion of reported crime cleared by arrest or other exceptional means, such as death of the offendermay more accurately portray the proportion of crime committed by young people, according to Snyder But even clearance statistics may overestimate juvenile crime.
For example, if young people are more easily apprehended than adults, the proportion of their crimes cleared by arrest would be higher than the proportion of all crimes for which they were responsible Snyder, Likewise, Reiss and Farrington showed that offending appears less common in the teenage years if the rate is based on the number of offenses which takes into account co-offending committed by juveniles rather than on the number of juvenile offenders.
Another problem with the UCR as a measure of crime is that, regardless of the number of offenses that occur in an incident leading to arrest, only one offense—the most serious—is counted for a detailed discussion of gaps in the UCR see Maltz, This procedure results in less serious crimes being undercounted by arrest statistics and a lack of information on the circumstances surrounding the crime.
For example, if a homicide occurs during a robbery, only the homicide is counted. As Maltz points out, this masks the nature of the circumstances surrounding the homicide.Juvenile delinquency, also known as "juvenile offending", The habitual crime behavior found among juveniles is similar to that of adults.
As stated before most life-course persistent offenders begin exhibiting antisocial, violent, and/or delinquent behavior, prior to adolescence.
Juvenile delinquency in the United States; Kazan. This page is primarily concerned with juvenile delinquency in the United States. For information on juvenile delinquency in This led to a high rise in juvenile delinquency because more children and teens were implanted with the thought that carrying out bad actions was okay.
the OJJDP is working to prevent gang involvement/crime, girl's. The UCR provide crime counts for the United States as a whole, as well as for regions, states, counties, cities, and towns. In addition, the UCR provide data on, among other things, crimes known to the police, crimes cleared by arrest, and characteristics of persons arrested.
GIRLS AND DELINQUENCY.
The National Academies Press. doi: The juvenile arrest rate for all offenses reached its highest level in the last two decades in , and then declined 70% by estimates for and developed by the National Center for Juvenile Justice based on data published in the FBI's Crime in the United States reports.
These are preliminary estimates that will be updated. The Rise of Juvenile Delinquency in the s. Ever since the evolution of radios and television gave us the ability to project music, sports, news, etcetera, the world has been able to tune in to what is happening halfway across the world from their location.
Girls, Juvenile Delinquency, & Gangs National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) National Youth Gang Survey Analysis. Uniform Crime Reports. Feature Articles. Bryan Stevenson Delivers Five Key Messages During Summit Closing Remarks. Growth of Youth Gang Problems in the United States: